Features | Partner Sites | Information | LinkXpress
Sign In
Ampronix
Demo Company
Schiller

X-Rays, Gamma Rays Alter Specific Small Molecules in the Blood

By Medimaging International staff writers
Posted on 06 Mar 2013
Cancer researchers have identified molecules in the bloodstream that might effectively assess the probability of radiation illness after exposure to ionizing radiation.

The animal study, led by researchers from the Ohio State Comprehensive Cancer Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC-James; Columbus, USA), revealed that gamma rays or X-rays alter the levels of specific molecules called microRNA in the blood in a predictable way.

If confirmed in human subjects, the findings could lead to new technology for quickly detecting individuals at risk for acute radiation syndrome after occupational exposures or accidents such as the recent Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactor incident. The microRNA markers might also help physicians strategize customized radiation therapy for individual patients by taking into account how different people respond to radiation treatment, the researchers reported.

The study’s findings were reported February 25, 2013, in the journal PLOS ONE. “Our paper reports the identification of a panel of microRNA markers in mice whose serum levels provide an estimate of radiation response and of the dose received after an exposure has occurred,” said senior author Dr. Arab Chakravarti, chair and professor of radiation oncology, and codirector of the Brain Tumor Program. “Accurate dose evaluation is critical for making medical decisions and for the timely administration of therapy to prevent or reduce acute and late effects.”

The findings might also one day allow clinicians to assess radiation toxicity during the course of therapy based on an individual’s biology. “This would particularly benefit leukemia and lymphoma patients who receive total body irradiation in preparation for stem-cell transplantation,” Dr. Chakravarti remarked.

First author Dr. Naduparambil Jacob, a research assistant professor in radiation oncology, noted that the study could be an important step in the development of biologic dosimetry, or biodosimetry, a technology for identifying people at risk for acute radiation illnesses that develop within weeks of radiation exposure, and cancers and degenerative diseases that can occur months or years later. “Biodosimetry is an emerging concept that could enable us to identify individuals who need immediate treatment after a radiation exposure and to better develop personalized radiation treatment plans for patients,” Dr. Jacob explained.

For this study, Drs. Chakravarti, Jacob and their colleagues evaluated dose-dependent changes in levels of 88 individual microRNAs in serum from mice after a single acute radiation exposure, and after fractionated doses of radiation that are typical of radiation treatment prior to stem-cell transplantation. Samples were collected from exposed and control animals 24 or 48 hours after exposure.

Significant findings of the study included: (1) After a one-time exposure, miRNA-150 showed a clear decrease over time with increasing radiation dose, with a drop of 30% after 24 hours and of 50% after 48 hours, even at the lowest exposure of one gray of radiation. (2) miRNA-200b and miRNA-762 showed increased levels after radiation exposure, with the changes more pronounced in animals receiving higher doses. (3) Lastly, animals receiving fractioned doses showed similar changes; e.g., miRNA-150 decreased about 50% after 24 hours in animals receiving 4 Gray.

Related Links:

Ohio State Comprehensive Cancer Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute



Channels

MRI

view channel
Image: Siemens Healthcare MAGNETOM Avanto 1.5-T MRI Scanner (Photo courtesy of Siemens Healthcare).

MRI Technique Allows for “Fingerprinting” of Tissues and Diseases for Faster Diagnoses

New findings published in the journal Nature indicate that a new Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique, called Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF), could provide much more information with each... Read more

Ultrasound

view channel

New Ultrasound System Enhances Patient Care and User Experience

A new ultrasound system with innovative specialized transducers and improved image quality, intended for general imaging, women’s health, and shared service applications, has been announced. The system features improved accuracy, performance, assessment tools, advanced automation, and an enhanced user experience.... Read more

Nuclear medicine

view channel

Clinical Study Shows Added Value of Amyloid PET Imaging in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia

Early-onset dementia patients could benefit from a new PET imaging agent developed by a major medical imaging vendor. The results of a clinical study showing the effectiveness of the amyloid PET imaging agent were presented at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC 2015) in Washington DC (USA).... Read more

General/Advanced Imaging

view channel
Image: Illustration of a new technique using Optical Coherence Tomography that could help surgeons differentiate a human brain tumor, red, from surrounding noncancerous tissue, green (Photo courtesy of  Carmen Kut, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Xingde Li and Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa/Johns Hopkins Medicine).

Imaging Technique Helps Safer and More Effective Removal of Brain Tumors

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University have demonstrated a new imaging technology that could enable neurosurgeons to better differentiate between healthy and cancerous brain tissue and perform safer... Read more

Imaging IT

view channel
Image: Siemens Healthcare’s syngo.via MM Oncology facilitates compliance by clinicians to British Thoracic Society guidelines for the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules.(Photo courtesy of Siemens Healthcare).

Oncology Software Update Compliant with New BTS Guidelines

A key diagnostic imaging vendor has announced that it has modified its oncology software solution to ensure compliance with new British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for lung nodule screening.... Read more

Industry News

view channel

Report Forecasts Growth of Global Computed Tomography Sector to USD 6 billion by 2019

A new report has been published that analyzes global Computed Tomography (CT) market shares, strategies, and forecasts, for the years 2013 to 2018. The report entitled “Global Computed Tomography (CT) Market Shares, Strategies, and Forecasts, 2013 to 2018,” predicts that global CT markets will continue to grow moderately... Read more
 

Events

11 Sep 2015 - 12 Sep 2015
19 Sep 2015 - 24 Sep 2015
Copyright © 2000-2015 Globetech Media. All rights reserved.