Features | Partner Sites | Information | LinkXpress
Sign In
Schiller
GLOBETECH PUBLISHING LLC
Ampronix

X-Rays, Gamma Rays Alter Specific Small Molecules in the Blood

By Medimaging International staff writers
Posted on 06 Mar 2013
Cancer researchers have identified molecules in the bloodstream that might effectively assess the probability of radiation illness after exposure to ionizing radiation.

The animal study, led by researchers from the Ohio State Comprehensive Cancer Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC-James; Columbus, USA), revealed that gamma rays or X-rays alter the levels of specific molecules called microRNA in the blood in a predictable way.

If confirmed in human subjects, the findings could lead to new technology for quickly detecting individuals at risk for acute radiation syndrome after occupational exposures or accidents such as the recent Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactor incident. The microRNA markers might also help physicians strategize customized radiation therapy for individual patients by taking into account how different people respond to radiation treatment, the researchers reported.

The study’s findings were reported February 25, 2013, in the journal PLOS ONE. “Our paper reports the identification of a panel of microRNA markers in mice whose serum levels provide an estimate of radiation response and of the dose received after an exposure has occurred,” said senior author Dr. Arab Chakravarti, chair and professor of radiation oncology, and codirector of the Brain Tumor Program. “Accurate dose evaluation is critical for making medical decisions and for the timely administration of therapy to prevent or reduce acute and late effects.”

The findings might also one day allow clinicians to assess radiation toxicity during the course of therapy based on an individual’s biology. “This would particularly benefit leukemia and lymphoma patients who receive total body irradiation in preparation for stem-cell transplantation,” Dr. Chakravarti remarked.

First author Dr. Naduparambil Jacob, a research assistant professor in radiation oncology, noted that the study could be an important step in the development of biologic dosimetry, or biodosimetry, a technology for identifying people at risk for acute radiation illnesses that develop within weeks of radiation exposure, and cancers and degenerative diseases that can occur months or years later. “Biodosimetry is an emerging concept that could enable us to identify individuals who need immediate treatment after a radiation exposure and to better develop personalized radiation treatment plans for patients,” Dr. Jacob explained.

For this study, Drs. Chakravarti, Jacob and their colleagues evaluated dose-dependent changes in levels of 88 individual microRNAs in serum from mice after a single acute radiation exposure, and after fractionated doses of radiation that are typical of radiation treatment prior to stem-cell transplantation. Samples were collected from exposed and control animals 24 or 48 hours after exposure.

Significant findings of the study included: (1) After a one-time exposure, miRNA-150 showed a clear decrease over time with increasing radiation dose, with a drop of 30% after 24 hours and of 50% after 48 hours, even at the lowest exposure of one gray of radiation. (2) miRNA-200b and miRNA-762 showed increased levels after radiation exposure, with the changes more pronounced in animals receiving higher doses. (3) Lastly, animals receiving fractioned doses showed similar changes; e.g., miRNA-150 decreased about 50% after 24 hours in animals receiving 4 Gray.

Related Links:

Ohio State Comprehensive Cancer Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute



Channels

MRI

view channel
Image: Using an MRI technique that is sensitive to certain byproducts of cell metabolism, including levels of glucose and acidity, University of Iowa researchers discovered previously unrecognized differences in the brains of patients with bipolar disorder. The T1rho MRI scans showed brain regions of elevated signal in the 15 participants with bipolar disorder compared to the 25 participants who did not have bipolar disorder. The primary regions of difference are the cerebral white matter (yellow) and the cerebellum (red) (Photo courtesy of the University of Iowa).

Quantitative, High-Resolution T1 Rho MRI Mapping Scan Reveals Brain Differences in Bipolar Disorder

Using a different sort of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology, researchers have discovered previously unrecognized differences in the brains of patients with bipolar disorder. In particular, the... Read more

Ultrasound

view channel

Guidelines Released for Quantitative Monitoring of Critically Ill and Surgery Patients Using Echocardiography

The American Society of Echocardiography (ASE; Morrisville, NC, USA) has published clinical guidelines describing how and when echocardiography can be used for medical and surgical therapy in adult patients. The guidelines were published in the January 2015 issue of the American Society of Echocardiography.... Read more

Nuclear medicine

view channel
Image: Created by averaging PET scan data from chronic pain patients (left) and healthy controls (right), the images reveal higher levels of inflammation-associated translocator protein (orange/red) in the thalamus and other brain regions of chronic pain patients (Photo courtesy of Marco Loggia, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital).

PET/MR Imaging Shows First Evidence of Neuroinflammation in Chronic Pain Patients’ Brains

For the first time, researchers have used neuroimaging strategies to find evidence of neuroinflammation in major regions of the brains of patients with chronic pain. By showing that levels of an i... Read more

General/Advanced Imaging

view channel
Image: Dr. Miles was part of the team that helped identify facial measurements in children with autism that may lead to a screening tool for young children and provide clues to its genetic causes (Photo courtesy of Rebecca F. Miller).

Advanced 3D Facial Imaging Designed to Help in Early Identification of Autism

Autism is a range of closely related disorders observed in patients who exhibit a shared assortment of symptoms, including delays in learning to communicate and interrelate socially. Early detection of... Read more

Imaging IT

view channel

Findings Reveal Health Information Exchange Decreases Repeat Imaging

The use of health information exchange (HIE) systems to share reports on imaging tests, such as X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, can help reduce the number of times patients undergo the precisely same test. A new study suggests that HIE technology that gives healthcare providers immediate, electronic access... Read more

Industry News

view channel
Image: 3-D Image of the Mindray DC-70 Ultrsound System (Photo courtesy of Mindray).

Ultrasound Equipment Sector in United States Expected to Grow Through 2020

Ultrasound equipment market in the United States is expected to remain stable and continue to grow, exceeding USD 2 billion by 2020 as revealed in a report by iData Research (Burnaby, BC, Canada).... Read more
 

Events

01 Feb 2015 - 06 Feb 2015
02 Feb 2015 - 06 Feb 2015
Copyright © 2000-2015 Globetech Media. All rights reserved.